for Health Care Providers
Glossary of HIV/AIDS Terms
The lowest level to which viral load falls after starting antiretroviral treatment. Studies have shown that the nadir of the viral load is the best predictor of long-term viral suppression.
National Institutes of Health (NIH)
In the United States, a multi-institute agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the federal focal point for health research. It conducts research in its own laboratories and supports research in universities, medical schools, hospitals, and research institutions throughout the United States and abroad. Internet address: http://www.nih.gov/
Natural History Study
Study of the natural development of something (such as an organism or a disease) over a period of time.
Neurological Complications of AIDS
The name given to a group of disorders involving nerves. Symptoms range from a tingling sensation or numbness in the toes and fingers to paralysis. It is estimated that 35% of persons with HIV disease have some form of neuropathy.
The process by which an antibody binds to specific antigens, thereby "neutralizing" the microorganism.
An antibody that keeps a virus from infecting a cell, usually by blocking receptors on the cell or the virus.
An abnormal decrease in the number of neutrophils (the most common type of white blood cell) in the blood. The decrease may be relative or absolute. Neutropenia may also be associated with HIV infection or may be drug induced.
A type of white blood cell (leukocyte) that engulfs and kills foreign microorganisms such as bacteria.
A non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), FDA approved for treatment of HIV-infected adults in combination with nucleoside analogues. The drug is effective in preventing HIV transmission from mothers to infants and is widely used in developing countries because of ease of use and low cost; Viramune (trade name)
Extreme sweating during sleep. Although they can occur with other conditions, night sweats are also a symptom of HIV disease.
Non-A, Non-B Hepatitis
Non-A, non-B hepatitis, caused by the hepatitis C virus, which appears to be spread through sexual contact as well as through sharing of drug needles. (Another type of non-A, non-B hepatitis is caused by the hepatitis E virus, principally spread through contaminated water.)
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL)
A lymphoma made up of B cells and characterized by nodular or diffuse tumors that may appear in the stomach, liver, brain, and bone marrow of persons with HIV. After Kaposi sarcoma, NHL is the most common opportunistic cancer in persons with AIDS.
Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTI)
A group of structurally different compounds that bind to the catalytic site of HIV-1's reverse transcriptase. They are quite specific; unlike the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, the NNRTIs have no activity against HIV-2. Included in this class of drugs are nevirapine, delavirdine, efavirenz, and tenofovir.
A classification of drugs called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. NSAIDs reduce inflammation and are used to treat arthritis and mild-to-moderate pain.
Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing
See Nucleic Acid Test.
Nucleic Acid Test
A technology that allows detection of very small amounts of genetic material (DNA or RNA) in blood, plasma, and tissue. A nucleic acid test can detect any number of viruses in blood or blood products, thereby better assuring the safety of the blood supply.
A building block of nucleic acids, DNA, or RNA, the genetic material found in living organisms. Nucleosides are nucleotides without the phosphate groups.
An artificial copy of a nucleoside. When incorporated into the DNA or RNA of a virus during viral growth, the nucleoside analogue acts to prevent production of new virus.
Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTI)
A nucleoside analogue antiretroviral drug whose chemical structure constitutes a modified version of a natural nucleoside. These compounds suppress replication of retroviruses by interfering with the reverse transcriptase enzyme. The nucleoside analogues cause premature termination of the proviral (viral precursor) DNA chain.
Nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids, DNA, and RNA. Nucleotides are composed of phosphate groups, a five-sided sugar molecule (ribose sugars in RNA, deoxyribose sugars in DNA), and nitrogen-containing bases.
Nucleotide analogues are drugs that are structurally related to nucleotides; they are chemically altered to inhibit production or activity of disease-causing proteins.
The central controlling body within a living cell, usually a spherical unit enclosed in a membrane and containing genetic codes for maintaining the life systems of the organism and for issuing commands for growth and reproduction.
Nevirapine (generic name); Viramune (trade name)