HIV/AIDS

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Glossary of HIV/AIDS Terms

for Health Care Providers

Glossary of HIV/AIDS Terms

B Cell Lymphoma

See Lymphoma.

B Lymphocytes (B Cells)

One of the two major classes of lymphocytes (white blood cells); they are involved in the production of antibodies.

Bacteriostatic

Capable of slowing the growth of bacteria.

Bactrim

Brand name of Trimethoprim/Sulphamethoxazole.

See Trimethoprim/Sulphamethoxazole; Cotrimoxazole.

BCG

Bacille of Calmette and Guerin--a TB vaccine.

bDNA Test

See Branched DNA Assay.

BID

Twice each day.

Bilirubin

A yellow pigment occurring in liver bile, blood, and urine. Its measurement can be used as an indication of the health of the liver. Bilirubin is the product of the breakdown of red blood cells. An elevated level of bilirubin in blood is an indication of liver disease or drug-induced liver impairment.

Biopsy

Surgical removal of a piece of tissue from a person for microscopic examination to make a diagnosis (e.g. to determine whether abnormal cells such as cancer cells are present).

Bisexual

Having sexual relations with both females and males.

BIW

Twice each week.

Blinded Study

A clinical research study in which participants are unaware as to whether they are receiving the experimental drug.

See Double-Blind Study.

BMI

Body mass index (kilogram/meter2)

Body Fluids

Any fluid in the human body, such as blood, urine, saliva (spit), sputum, tears, semen, mother's milk, or vaginal secretions. Only blood, semen, mother's milk, and vaginal secretions have been linked directly to the transmission of HIV.

Body Surface Area (BSA)

A measure of the overall surface of a person calculated from height and weight. Body surface area is expressed in meters squared (m2).

Booster

A second or later dose of a vaccine given to increase the immune response to the original dose.

Branched DNA Assay

(bDNA test) A test developed by Bayer for measuring the amount of HIV (as well as other viruses) in blood plasma. Test results are calibrated in numbers of virus particle equivalents per milliliter of plasma.

Breakthrough Infection

An infection caused by the infectious agent the substance is designed to protect against. As it pertains to a vaccine trial, the infection may be caused by exposure to the infectious agent, such as HIV, before the vaccine has taken effect, before all doses of the vaccine have been given, or because the vaccine is not effective.

Breast Abscess

This is a collection of pus in part of the breast. It results in painful swelling of the breast and usually requires a surgical incision for drainage.

Breast Milk Substitute

Any food being marketed or otherwise presented as partial or total replacement for breast milk, whether or not suitable for that purpose.

Breast Milk Substitute

Any food being marketed or otherwise represented as a partial or total replacement for breast milk, whether or not suitable for that purpose. A breast milk substitute can be commercial infant formula or home-modified animal milk.

Breast-feeding

Feeding a child breast milk (direct from the breast or expressed). Breast-feeding practices may be further described according to timing and frequency.

See Exclusive Breast-feeding.

Bronchoscopy

Examination of the bronchial (lung) passages through the tube of an endoscope (usually a curved flexible tube containing fibers that carry light down the tube and project an enlarged image up the tube to the viewer) that is inserted into the upper lungs.

Burkitt Lymphoma

A B-cell-type lymphoma.