for Veterans and the Public
Exercise and HIV: Entire Lesson
Being HIV positive is no different from being HIV negative when it comes to exercise. Regular exercise is part of a healthy lifestyle.
Benefits of exercise
Following are some of the benefits of exercise:
- Maintains or builds muscle mass
- Reduces cholesterol and triglyceride levels (less risk of heart disease)
- Increases energy
- Regulates bowel function
- Strengthens bones (less risk of osteoporosis)
- Improves blood circulation
- Increases lung capacity
- Helps with sound, restful sleep
- Lowers stress
- Improves appetite
Before starting an exercise program, talk to your health care provider about what you have done in the past for exercise; mention any problems that you had. Consider your current health status and other medical conditions that may affect the type of exercise you can do.
Make sure you can set aside time for your exercise program. Experts recommend about 150 minutes (2-1/2 hours) of moderately vigorous exercise per week. That means about 30 minutes of brisk walking, bicycling, or working around the house, 5 days a week. This amount of exercise can reduce risks of developing coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, colon cancer, and diabetes.
If this amount of time seems too much, consider starting with 3 times a week. The important thing is consistency. This is an ongoing program and you will not benefit without consistency.
Types of exercise
Two types of exercise are resistance training and aerobic exercise. Resistance training--sometimes called strength training--helps to build muscle strength and mass. Aerobic exercise is important because it strengthens your lungs and your heart. You can read more about these on the next couple of pages.
Resistance or strength training is important for people with HIV because it can help offset the loss of muscle sometimes caused by the disease. This form of exercise involves exertion of force by moving (pushing or pulling) objects of weight. They can be barbells, dumbbells, or machines in gyms. You can also use safe, common household objects such as plastic milk containers filled with water or sand, or you can use your own body weight in exercises such as push-ups or pull-ups. The purpose of resistance training is to build muscle mass.
Use the correct amount of weight for the exercise you are performing. You should not feel pain during the exercise. When starting a resistance training program, you should feel a little sore for a day or two, but not enough to limit your regular activities. If you do feel very sore, you have used too much weight or have done too many repetitions. Rest an extra day and start again using less weight.
Aerobic exercise strengthens your lungs and heart. Walking, jogging, running, swimming, hiking, and cycling are forms of this exercise.
This movement increases your heart rate and the rate and depth of your breathing, which in turn increases how much blood and oxygen your heart pumps to your muscles. To achieve the maximum benefit of this kind of exercise, most experts recommend that your heart rate should reach the target rate for at least 20 minutes. It may take you weeks to reach this level if you haven't been exercising much.
Designing a program
When beginning an exercise program, start slow and build. Start any exercise session with a warmup. This can be as short as a few stretches, if you are working out later in the day when your muscles and joints are already loose, or a short 10-minute stretch session if you are working out first thing in the morning, when your muscles and joints are still tight. Your warmup should not tire you out but invigorate you and decrease the risk of joint or muscle injury.
If you join a gym, ask about what comes with the membership. Many gyms offer a free evaluation that includes weighing and measuring you and asking what your goals are. Some gym memberships come with a free workout with a personal trainer and advice to help you achieve your goals.
Finding a workout partner can be helpful for support and encouragement, and your workout partner can help motivate you with the last repetitions of an exercise, which can help improve your strength.
A balanced exercise program is best. Starting with an aerobic exercise is a good warmup to a resistance training session. Remember that learning the correct form in a weight training program will lessen the chance of injury. Go at your own pace. You are not competing with anyone. Listen to your body. If it hurts, stop.
After an exercise session, you should feel a little tired. A little while later, however, you should have some energy.
Water - Drink it before, during, and after you exercise. When you feel thirsty you have already lost important fluids and electrolytes and may be dehydrated.
Eat well - Exercising tears down muscle in order to build it up stronger. You need nutrition to provide the raw materials to rebuild your muscles.
Sleep - While you sleep, your body is rebuilding.
Listen to your body - It will tell you to slow down or speed up.
If you are sick or have a cold, take a break. Your body will thank you.
- My HealtheVet's Physical Activity Center
Advice on how to get started and maintain healthy exercise habits.
- Physical activity information
From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Includes recommendations and guidelines for incorporating physical activity into your daily life.
- Fact sheet on nutrition and exercise when you have HIV
Includes tips on exercises for strength training, from the American Academy of Family Physicians.
- The Body's Exercise and HIV page
Includes a listing of Web links to advice, news and research, and personal accounts related to exercise and HIV.